论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝因经济原因而灭亡)

明朝拥有世界80%以上的白银,但政府却面临着无法应对的财政危机。 当李自成的农民军逼近北京城时,崇祯皇帝下令全国各地的秦王。 等了二十一天,秦王大军却不见踪影。 崇祯伤心又愤怒。 皇帝爬上御花园后的煤山,在一棵老槐树下自缢身亡。

崇祯临终前写下遗言:

“我即位十七年,叛军已逼近京师,我虽无德,盗匪俯首,但天怒,使叛军逼近京城。然而,这一切都是因为我的缘故。”错误。我死后,将无法亲见我的祖先。地下,摘下你的王冠,用头发遮住你的脸,让盗贼劈开我的身体,但不要伤害任何人!”

崇祯对于自己身为亡国之王感到十分愧疚,但同时也表达了对自己的亡国之臣的痛恨和对百姓的热爱。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

1、各地军队为何不侍奉国王? 明朝政府的国库到底有多空?

1643年12月,担任工部营修司员外郎的青年赵士进接管了界神库。 他后来在《甲申纪事》中记载:

“新国库里有2300多两黄金,旧国库里……只有一千多两黄金……除了锦衣卫,他来加纳收了600两白银,还有宝源局兑换白银三百两,藏书处为守卫,供城内使用。 总共有白银​​四千二百多两。

当时朝廷面临的形势十分惨淡。 一位学者对此进行了恰当的描述:

1644年初,军饷拖欠达数百万两,而南方的赋税只有数万两。 该国的粮仓现在实际上已经空了。 军队米不够用,户部就买杂粮来凑钱。 北京被围时,驻军已经五个月没有领到饷了。 执行任务的部队没有炊具。 每个士兵得到100个铜币来购买自己的食物。

士气和纪律都被严重削弱,以至于一位将军报告说:“你鞭打一名士兵,他会站起来;但同时另一个士兵会倒下。” 王朝即将结束也就不足为奇了。 令人惊讶的是,直到那时事情还没有结束。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

2、隆庆解禁后,1572年至1620年大量白银流入中国,中国成为白银帝国。

进入马尼拉几年后,西班牙人开始将白银从美洲安第斯山脉运往秘鲁海岸,然后通过海路向北到达阿卡普尔科,在那里装上大型帆船,在每年冬天结束时。

1572年春天,三艘满载中国精美商品的中国帆船出现在菲律宾。 让中国人没想到的是,西班牙人居然买下了船上的所有货物。 作为回报,中国人尽其所能地运走了所有的西班牙银元。

从此,一船一船的美国白银开始从菲律宾流入中国,而来自遥远中国的丝绸、瓷器则成为欧洲富裕贵族的奢侈品,让他们对中国更加着迷和向往。 就这样,明朝成为了世界工厂。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

这就是著名的马尼拉大帆船贸易。 整个 1680 年代,马尼拉大帆船每年往返太平洋运输约 3 吨白银。 到了1620年代,平均年运输量已增至20吨。 这些白银大部分流入中国,有学者估计白银数量达到3亿两左右。3. 大量白银流入中国,国库为何如此空虚?

白银的流入促进了中国经济的发展。 然而明朝是一个高度家族化、中央集权的国家,皇室通过各种手段掠夺了大部分流入帝国的白银。

王室洗钱的方式有无数种。 一是垄断食盐。 万历皇帝最宠爱的福亲王竞选太子失败,被迫外出封臣。 他在封印期间乞讨了大量的盐,而当时市场价格最高的就是淮盐;

二是与军事洗钱相结合。 朱家贵族曾经垄断了前线大米的供应,供应价格当然是正常价格的数倍;

三是私铸铜币。 明代铜币供应量一直不足,老百姓被迫从宋代挖铜币。 大多数王子私下铸造铜币。 然后,通过铜币供应的收紧和放松,铜币与白银的比价出现波动,吸纳了普通百姓。 银子在老百姓手里。

明朝皇室并不把白银当作货币,而是像珍珠、玉石一样收藏起来。 不然的话,正德皇帝也不会傻到用白银建造一座房子,花费了两千万两白银。 因此,大量的银子沉睡在皇宫和各王爷的行宫之中。

就拿万历皇帝来说吧。 他死后,内库中留下的私房钱财数量惊人。 他的儿子太常帝只在位二十九天,却从内库拨出四百万两白银用于边防,足足一百万两百两。 赐予数千块土地。

白银正式进入市场是在明代公务员工资改革多年之后,但数量并不多。 白银越少,相对于铜币的价格就越高,收集白银的贵族也就越多。 他们收集的越多,数量就越少。 在这个循环中,大部分从国际贸易进入明朝的白银都被吸收了。

4、中央每年财政总收入为3500万两白银,但中央户部每年的实际收入约为400万两白银。 朱元璋的财政制度设计是崇祯皇帝陷入困境的根源。

朱元璋出身农民,深知百姓疾苦。 明朝初期,税率很低。 中央政府主要依靠土地税收入,土地收入仅占不到1/10。 明代中央政府的支出主要是军费、官俸和公共建设。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

由于明朝有自己独特的军事戍守制度,明太祖自豪地宣称:“我养百万兵,不费百姓一粒米”。 驻军解决解决了大部分军费。

从行政上看,明初的官员数量很少。 1371年,地方官员仅有5488人。 1455年,首都有公务员1520人。

在公共建设方面,除了修筑长城、宫殿、维护大运河外,明政府没有进行大规模的公共建设。 这主要依靠“免费”劳动力,需要很少的资金。

为了便于税收征收,朱元璋编制了户籍黄册和土地鱼鳞册,相当于现在的户籍本和土地证。 统计结果:户籍户数超过1000万户,人口超过6000万,土地面积近860万公顷。 土地面积增加了一倍,政府税收大幅增加,达到3.2亿石(注意是粮食,相当于2000万两白银)。 按照朱元璋的祖训,这笔钱是不能增加的。

还有来自税收的“服务”收入。 老百姓除了缴纳土地税外,还要参军,以满足国家建设的需要。 “服务”成为国家行政机关的一项管理费用,主要涉及维持客栈、给人当仆人、服兵役等。

劳动力和技术免费供国家使用,政府只向“劳动者”提供基本的食物供应。 从皇帝到官员,经常会征用自由劳动力来做私人事情,而这种责任往往会落在穷人和孝顺的人身上。 “服兵役”是征兵的另一种形式,是不正规的、不可抗拒的。

按照黄仁宇的计算,相当于白银大约在千万两以上。

除了土地赋税、赋税和劳务外,还有一些工商业收入、盐专营收入、矿银收入、国际贸易收入等,这些收入总计约380万两。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

据此计算,明朝每年的财政总收入约为3500万两白银。 那么,如此巨款,为何中央户部只收到400万两呢?

因为田税和劳力并没有以白银的形式体现,三千一千两白银只是粮食和劳力。 明朝时期,交通极其不发达,粮食运输十分困难,沿途损失也巨大。 出于现实考虑,大部分粮食并不是由中央集中再分配,而是按照就近原则进行分配。

直到明代中后期,粮食和劳力才慢慢兑换成白银。 但分配原则没有太大变化,到达中央的资金仍然很少。 经过多次改革,张居正时期,税粮部分折算为税钱,实际到户部的约有300万两。 盐税、工商税等收入也是如此,到达户部的大约是40万到80万两。

税务部仓库所谓的年收入只占帝国总税收的12%。 即使是最杰出的改革家张居正(1572-1582),经过十年的努力,也只给户部太丑留下了600万多两白银,剩下的就留给了万历皇帝九年的使用。年。 。 这些家族财产全部被“万历三大征”消耗殆尽。 5. 随着王室等特权阶级的壮大、土地兼并的加剧、军事定居制度的破坏,本已十分捉襟见肘的中央财政早已不堪重负。

1、明朝末年,“天下修朱”现象十分严重。

据《明太祖实录》记载,朱元璋时期宗族人口总数只有58人。到万历二十三年(1595年),明朝宗族总人口已超过15.7万人。 这个数字在崇祯时期显着增加。

朱元璋以粮食为单位,规定宗族的待遇。 太子俸禄每年一万石,郡王俸禄每年两千石,然后依次递减。 即使是最低的级别,奉国尉和象君每年也会得到200石。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

明代时,一石约相当于今天的180公斤。 明代七品官员(一般是县令,相当于现在的县长)年俸只有九十石。

万历初年,全国每年田赋总计约2300万石,仅提供给宗族的俸禄就达800万石以上。

据《皇明经世文编》记载,“两省的粮食,尚不足以供给宗族稻米的一半”。 这里的“两省”是指粮食主产省山西和河南。 这两个省的粮食产量实际上还不到宗族俸禄的一半。 从这些数字可以看出,从万历时期开始,宗室就严重拖累了明朝的财政。

2、土地兼并使国家的应税土地和人口大幅减少,中央财政收入也相应减少。

明朝对待读书人很好,只要通过举人考试就免收田赋。 因此,通过举人考试的士人会占有大量土地,而地主往往将土地放在举人名下以避免纳税。

江南富贵的金士绅所占有的土地少则数百亩,多则数千乃至万亩。 河南士绅富家,常侵占万亩田地。 其中最突出的就是封建领主占有的土地。 万历年间,福王封他为河南诸侯。 明神宗一次性赐给他土地200万亩。 河南的土地不够,于是“齐征山东、湖广”。 场地”。

天启时,明熹宗皇帝下令分给桂王、惠王、睿王、遂平公主、宁国公主的土地从七十万到八十万亩到三百万亩不等。 结果州县没有土地可以分配,就命令各地百姓分田。 银租称为“无地租”。

经过明朝200多年这样的恶性循环,明朝的大部分土地都属于不纳税的特权阶级,而国家的大部分税收则由只拥有土地的农民承担。一小部分土地。 如此巨大的压力,导致农民乃至小地主逐渐破产,成为无家可归或佃农。

因此,国家的财政收入越来越小,而特权阶层却越来越多。 这些特权人士就像水蛭一样,趴在明朝的身上肆意吸血。 他们越来越胖,而明朝却越来越瘦。

3、年度白银军饷制度打破了军营神话,成为中央财政支出的大头。

明朝初期,没有军饷制度——年银。 孙承泽曾总结:“自洪雍以来,无年规。年规自正统时期以来。……洪、正时期的年规总数约为40万条,在嘉靖时,有两百七十万多,七倍了,今天三百八十万多了,十倍了。”

军营的存在是基于对军事登记居民的残酷剥削。 当国家统治稳定后,军人居民开始逃亡。 明朝时期,逃亡士兵达到120万,约占当时军队的一半。 军户外逃,必然导致大量农田被废弃。

弘治年间兵部尚书马文升说:“十之、五十、六之,农为名实”。 许多地方的官僚趁机吞并军用土地。 于是,军营的收入逐渐减少。 没有军户,国家就需要招募大量的军队,形成征兵制度,这就需要更多的军费开支。

明朝后期,军费常年占中央财政支出的70%以上,万历四十五年甚至达到92%。 没有一个国家能够长期维持这样的财政支出。 更何况,明初的财政设计并没有考虑到这笔军费。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

6、1630年代,国际贸易危机导致流入中国的白银急剧减少,加剧了崇祯王朝的财政危机。

1634年至1636年间,西班牙当局决定减少从新大陆流入马尼拉的白银数量,从而减少了闽商的白银收入。

1639年夏,日本德川幕府不允许澳门商人到长崎进行贸易。 由此,近一个世纪的有利可图的贸易突然结束,这种贸易将大量白银从日本运往中国。

葡萄牙人被赶出日本几个月后,中国和西班牙在菲律宾的贸易大幅减少。 在马尼拉,西班牙人和中国人之间的紧张关系最终发展为暴力冲突,造成两万多名华人死亡。 接下来的几年里,只有少量的美国白银流入中国。

就在1639年夏天危机更加严重时,崇祯皇帝同意再次增加赋税。 这次的税收无论提高多少,很多人都已经找不到足够的白银​​来缴纳旧税了,更不用说交心税了,而政府为了满足军事需要,必须提取更多的白银。来自私营部门。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

1740年代初期,中国出现严重的通货紧缩。 东南地区白银价格飙升,许多大宗商品价格暴跌至难以想象的水平。 这导致货币收藏量增加,大量白银从流通中消失。 人们保留了它。 站起来,为更糟糕的日子做好准备。

最终,所有的负担都转嫁给了老百姓。 结果朝廷每征一两税,就逼迫十个农民造反,就要花费数百两银钱镇压。 明朝的财政跳入了恶性循环,使得整个社会在经济衰退、自然灾害频繁的时期雪上加霜。 这引发了更多的内乱和反抗,明朝加速走向自我毁灭的道路。 。

我是中国历史新手,所以我来回答这个问题。

前言

明朝从1368年朱元璋称帝,到1644年朱由检被绞死在梅山,历时276年。 曾经繁荣的明朝终于结束了。 关于这个曾经强大的王朝为何走向终结,历史学家之间存在很多争议。 其灭亡的原因比较复杂,明朝所遭遇的症状也是全面的。 正如黄宗羲后来总结的那样,一个王朝的灭亡是由多种复杂矛盾造成的,不是由一个人、一件事决定的。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

今天我们就来分析一下明朝灭亡的经济原因。

原因一:明朝财政状况不佳

明代的田税长期实行低税率。 这与汉朝是一样的。 与当时的周边国家相比,明朝不足20%的税率并不是很高。 要知道同期日本的税率已经达到了10%。 五十。 然而,低税率只会带来国民收入的减少,而不会造福于人民,因为少征的税属于地主和富裕家庭,其本质是负担易手。

对地主的剥削使低税率失去了意义,但却造成了国家资金的短缺。 后来到了崇祯时期,屡屡受到财政问题的困扰。 明末民间起义初期,征募政策失败的原因是征募资金不足。 没有钱安置叛乱的难民。 为了生存,难民们不得不再次投降叛乱。 明末实行的“辽饷”、“剿饷”、“廉饷”等“三饷”,直接导致了矛盾的剧烈激化,加速了明朝的灭亡。 终于,“闯王”逼近了京城。 明廷因军饷不足而耽误了调兵进京救援的机会,可见其危害之深。

所有这些都与明朝发生的金融危机密切相关。

至于有人说崇祯皇帝宫里有几千万两白银,这是无稽之谈。 从常理来看,如果在李自成兵力逼京、国家即将沦陷的关键时刻,崇祯还有钱的话,就不需要数百名官员去“捐献”,这样就可以了。最终耽误了调动军队的机会。 这显然是不合理的。 现有可靠的史料也证明,李自成入京时,明朝国库和皇家内库均空无一人。

论明朝灭亡的政治经济原因(明朝亡于经济)/

那么为什么明朝的金融危机如此严重呢?

很大程度上是失去了一个重要的财源,那就是军事体系的破坏。 明初建立的驻军制度,有效保证了高额的军费开支。

明朝永乐元年,向全国军营征粮超过2300万石。 当时国家的粮食税收只有3100万石多。 军营收入占全国粮税的70%以上。 。 遗憾的是,自明代中叶以来,军事戍守制度逐渐遭到破坏。 早在弘治年间,兵部尚书马文升就指出:

“屯田政府被废除,没有任何记录。从上到下都遵循规则,没有官员检查。结果,禁卫军和强大的军民的官方旗帜被占领和盗走50或10个中的60个,所以屯田只是名义上的,但实际上是这样的。”

原本由驻军负责的军费,自正德以来全部由国库支出。 这意味着从此以后,朝廷不仅损失了巨额财政收入,军费开支也成为国家财政的沉重负担。 军饷需要从国家财政拨款,不能在地方支付。 军饷按时发放的可靠性大大降低。

从此,明朝时常担心自己打不了仗。 “万历三大征”中,仅援朝之战就花费了700万两,宁夏之战花费了200万两,雷州之战至少花费了200万两。 随后的辽东战争和国内内乱,都消耗了明朝财政的大量资金。

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天启、崇祯年间,军饷无法及时发放,兵变爆发。 士兵们反抗军饷,并蔓延至各地的军事警卫。

崇祯十七年,由于无力筹集100万军饷,关宁骑兵迟迟未能将吴三桂调往北京,这对明朝来说又是一根救命稻草。

假设如果没有废除驻军制度,军费足以自给的话,就不会有这样的担忧。 一百多年前放弃驻军的负面后果,终于在天启、崇祯年间显现出来。

因此,明朝中后期的财政管理不善是明朝灭亡的一个经济原因。

原因二:新经济因素与旧国家基础的冲突

随着“一鞭法”的实施、倭寇的镇压和“海禁”的放松。 明末,新的经济因素在东南地区不断发展,即所谓“资本主义萌芽”。 江南地区工商业的蓬勃发展,势必与传统上依靠农业立国的传统发生冲突。

万历年间,明朝万历皇帝试图解决国库和宫廷消费不足的问题。 派“矿税使”到处收钱,这种祸国殃民的掠夺性税收,遭到了东南发达地区工商业人士的强烈抵制。 这种抵抗甚至达到了武装对抗的程度。

万历二十九年南至苏州地区爆发的民间起义就是一个例子。 明末东林党的崛起在一定程度上支撑了新经济的发展。 他的思想主张是“工商业同根本”,反对大规模的商业税收。 凤阳太守、东林党人李三才对此行为表示强烈反对。 后期,东林党要求减免工商企业赋税。 这样一方面保障了工商业的发展,但另一方面也间接影响了“国基”。 本文所指的国基就是国家的基础,即农业基础。 找到了一个国家。 减少工商业税,造成税种单一,必然减少国库收入,增加农业税。 后来的“三率”加速了明朝的灭亡。 “如果东南不征税,就必须在西北征税。” 黄土高原的内乱不仅仅是自然灾害造成的。 如果国家强大,政策得当,根本不会引发如此大规模的起义。

明朝中后期,新的经济因素发展到了与农业经济发生冲突的地步,而且程度非常超前,因为此时资本主义的萌芽已经出现,但并没有突破农业经济体系毕竟。

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因为新的经济因素是以高度发达的农业经济为基础的,根据历史经验,农业经济的发展必然导致生产资料的高度集中——土地兼并。 新经济因素的出现无非就是农业经济的发展。 经济的副产品。 大规模的土地兼并引发了社会动荡,而社会动荡的直接结果就是脆弱的新经济的毁灭。 随后清军入关再次加剧了这一结果,新经济的发展再次受到限制。

总之,明朝的灭亡部分是由于农业经济的周期性矛盾:经济发展——土地兼并——社会矛盾激化——动乱——经济衰退——再开发。 这是一个恶性循环,而不幸的是,明朝也成为了这个循环的另一个使用者,这个链条上的最终受害者!

原因三:全国范围内发生大规模灾害,对农业生产和经济生活造成巨大影响。

相关资料显示,从明朝万历四十七年到崇祯十三年,明朝几乎每年都会发生自然灾害,一定程度上对当时的社会经济造成了很大的破坏。 。 影响。

当时主要的自然灾害有:干旱、蝗灾、涝灾、风灾、冰雹灾害、地震灾害、雪灾等,其中以干旱最为频繁,对农业生产影响巨大。当时。

据统计,崇祯时期的干旱,导致当时多地饥荒。 如此持续多年的饥荒,在历史上是非常罕见的。 明末的动乱是从陕西开始的。 事实上,陕西是当时自然灾害最严重的地区。

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当人民已经无法生存,而明政府又不管的时候,人民只能造反。 以至于当时的李自成也打着所谓“天降奇荒,故子(李)子成”的旗号起义。

从现代角度看,陕西的地理位置比较特殊。 Affected by the special natural environment, natural disasters occur frequently, among which drought is the most serious.

In the seventh year of the Apocalypse, a severe drought occurred in Shaanxi. The drought continued in the following year, the first year of Chongzhen, with northern Shaanxi being the hardest hit. In the third year of Chongzhen, the disaster area expanded to all of Shaanxi. In the sixth year of Chongzhen, three disasters including drought, locust and frost came together, and the following scene appeared:

“There is no green grass in the fields, and nine out of ten houses are empty. Therefore, there are those who fight for rice and thousands of coins, there are those who collect vegetable roots and leaves to satisfy their enemies, there are husbands who flirt with their wives, and fathers who abandon their sons, there are those who hang themselves in empty forests, and there are those who fill ravines with their own food. There are those who beg for food and clothing, there are those who run away with mud doors and poles upright, and there are those who cannibalize flesh and blood.”

Successive years of natural disasters will inevitably lead to a series of economic problems.

The first is the rise in prices after the disaster. Successive disasters in the late Ming Dynasty had a serious impact on agricultural production, and poor harvests caused food prices to soar. The price of rice in Shaanxi before was only one tael of silver per stone, but it increased several times after the disaster.

The second is to increase taxes and population flight. In the Ming Dynasty, there was already a “Liao pay” specifically for the military expenses of the Liao Dynasty. During the Tianqi period, there were additional taxes, salt classes, and miscellaneous items. Even in areas with severe disasters, the government has sent ministers to provide disaster relief, but state and county officials still levy taxes from the people. After the people fled and the land was abandoned, the officials still ordered the existing households to pay what they owed. The people were afraid of being burdened by taxes on uncultivated fields, so they simply abandoned even mature fields and stopped cultivating them.

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Wu Huan confirmed in “Please Compassion for the Three Qinshu” that people in many prefectures and counties in Shaanxi, such as Yaotong, Yizhong, Ningzhen and other counties, “have suffered from great famine, chaos, and epidemics. .” The large number of people fleeing will inevitably lead to the paralysis of local administration.

The long-established political corruption in the Wanli and Tianqi years, coupled with the successive disasters in the Chongzhen period, caused the productivity of the Ming Dynasty to be extremely devastated and destroyed, and the social economy fell into a desperate situation.

The tax increases in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Huguang and other places were relatively heavy, and the people were already overwhelmed. Coupled with the impact of severe disasters, the reason why the civil uprising was launched in Shaanxi, Shanxi, and then flourished in Henan and Huguang was because of this. 。

There is no doubt that the large-scale natural disasters seriously weakened the national power of the Ming Dynasty. It can be said that “the crops are not harvested, everyone eats each other, or eats grass roots and bark, and nine out of ten people starve to death. In addition, thieves roam freely, and the soil The bandits plundered, and the people abandoned their fields and fled. The fields were covered with wild grass, and there were very few inhabitants in the castles and villages—this was already the state of the Ming Dynasty.”

It can be said that natural disasters, an invisible and powerful enemy, under the action of various factors, brought down the social economy of the Ming Dynasty and created the necessary historical conditions for the Qing army to enter the pass.

结论

To sum up, bad financial management that began to appear in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the conflict between the new capitalist economy and the old national economy, and large-scale natural disasters across the country had a very serious impact on the economy of the Ming Dynasty. It caused the Ming Dynasty to enter a vicious cycle of “economic development – land annexation – intensification of social conflicts – unrest – economic recession – further development”. This was a very important reason that led to the demise of the Ming Dynasty.

I am a novice on Chinese history. The above are all my personal opinions. 欢迎提出意见和建议。

The most direct reason for the demise of the Ming Dynasty: The Ming Dynasty’s financial depletion!

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Also understand why the Ming Dynasty was financially exhausted. You need to understand that one of the policies implemented by the Ming Dynasty was that the gentry did not pay food.

The gentry did not pay the grain

In the middle and late period of the Ming Dynasty, the government had a policy that stipulated that as long as those with meritorious status, including those who passed the examination, scholars and students were entitled to certain preferential policies: for example, their family’s property could not pay taxes, and they could be used in bridge repair projects organized by the government. You don’t have to do labor when you are on the road or assigned to brewing tasks. In this way, in order to avoid tax burden, some households attached their property to these juren and scholar students. Over time, this has resulted in a serious loss and depletion of tax targets for the government.

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Therefore, those wealthy businessmen and officials of the Ming Dynasty did not collect taxes. But it is ordinary people who are really being taxed.

Confessing kings in various places aggravated the financial crisis of the Ming Dynasty

In the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang began to ennoble his children as kings. After more than two hundred years of reproduction and reproduction. A large amount of government money is consumed every year to support these royal families, and these royal families also annex large amounts of land through local plunder, forcing a large number of farmers to become tenants and refugees. Increased social instability.

The vassal kings in various places were sitting on huge amounts of property, but when the central government was in financial difficulty and needed money to arm the army, resist foreign invasion and quell internal migrant workers’ uprisings, they were left with nothing. In the end, they all benefited the peasants and the Qing rulers.

The Rise of Manchuria Beyond the Pass

Since the end of Wanli, the Jianzhou Jurchens have gradually developed under the leadership of Nurhachi. They have merged with some surrounding tribal forces and grown rapidly.

In 1616, Nurhaci established a kingdom in Hetuala and proclaimed himself khan, establishing the Later Jin Kingdom. The news spread after the Ming Dynasty. After the court’s preparations, in 1619, the Ming Dynasty sent Yang Hao as an economic envoy to attack Hou Jin, claiming that he would send 470,000 to attack Hou Jin.

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Facing the Ming Dynasty’s attack, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty adopted the strategy of “You can come in any direction, I will only go one way. Concentrate superior forces to attack the Ming army in all directions and defeat them in each direction.” The two sides launched a battle in Sarhu, and the Ming army was defeated across the board. From then on, the Ming Dynasty army lost the ability to attack Houjin. Choose from strategic offense to strategic defense.

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Under the leadership of Nurhachi and the Houjin ruling group, the Houjin army launched a massive attack on the Liaodong region of the Ming Dynasty. He captured Liaoyang and Shenyang successively, moved the capital to Shenyang again, and renamed Shenyang “Shengjing”.

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Because the war in Liaodong is not going well, the Ming government needs to station a large number of troops in Liaodong to resist Hou Jin’s attack, so your government will send more Liao soldiers! The result of accelerated thinking made the lives of ordinary people in the Ming Dynasty, who were already struggling to have enough food and clothing, even more difficult to live.

The Little Ice Age became the last straw for the Ming Dynasty.

The late Ming Dynasty encountered a small ice age in Chinese history, which roughly spanned from the late Wanli period to the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty.

During this period, the climate was abnormal, and the entire northern Shaanxi was severely affected by drought. The land was bare for thousands of miles, and the people were in dire straits. At this time, the state increased the salary and the local gentry and government extorted money, which made some peasants who could not survive take risks and start rebellion.

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Peasant uprising in northern Shaanxi: there were several major representatives such as Chuang Wang Gao Yingxiang, Li Zicheng, Zhang Xianzhong and so on. Especially after Chuang Wang Gao Yingxiang died in battle, Li Zicheng took over the banner of Chuang King and jointly led the peasant uprising together with the Eighth King Zhang Xianzhong. They adopted mobile operations, avoiding the reality and entangled with the Ming Dynasty government troops.

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The cooperation between the Qing army and the peasant army

If we take a closer look at this period of history in the late Ming Dynasty, we can see that Huang Taiji and the peasant uprising army outside the Pass still had some tacit understanding on the issue of mutual cooperation: in the early years of Chongzhen in the Qing Dynasty, the peasant uprising army became more and more fierce and had a strong tendency to grow. The Ming Dynasty government appointed Hong Chengchou as governor of Yansui and governor of the three frontiers, and led the Ming Dynasty border army to begin to exterminate the northwest peasant uprising army. Hong Chengchou led the main force of the Ming army to win consecutive battles. Soon the peasant uprising army was driven out of northern Shaanxi, and Feng Yong fled to Henan and Hubei.

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After seeing Hong Chengchou’s talent, the Ming Dynasty government again appointed Hong Chengchou as the Taibao of the Crown Prince and the Governor of the five provinces of Henan, Shaanxi, Anhui, Hubei, Sichuan, and Hunan! Specialized in annihilating peasant uprising armies. Hong Chengchou led the Ming army in Lintong and launched a bloody battle with the main force of his army. After capturing Chuang Wang Gao Yingxiang, Li Zicheng entered Shangluo Mountain with only 18 riders left.

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Just when Li Zicheng was about to be eliminated. Huang Taiji, who was outside the pass, led the Qing army from Shaanxi to the pass and directly attacked the city of Beijing. Although he was later forced to retreat. The Qing army’s entry into the customs gave the peasant uprising army a response. This allowed the Ming Dynasty government and the main force of the Flood Diversion Department to enter the Hebei area to strengthen the forces near the capital.

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From then on until the Battle of Songjin, Hong Chengchou was captured. He never returned to the battlefield where he wiped out the peasant army.

总结

There were various reasons for the demise of the Ming Dynasty: the Ming Dynasty itself was politically corrupt and had sharp internal conflicts: the internal party wars among the court officials consumed too many opportunities and resources of the Ming Dynasty; the officials, gentry and businessmen with huge wealth were not expropriated. Among them, merchants along the border in Shanxi resell strategic materials, food and weapons to back money; but the rulers levy taxes on ordinary people who live below the poverty line!

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The demise of the Ming Dynasty was actually caused by the mutual cooperation between the Hou Jin Dynasty and the peasant army, which made the Ming Dynasty government’s limited military power exhausted from mobilizing back and forth on the battlefields of suppressing the peasants at home and resisting the Hou Jin Dynasty in Liaodong.

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Just imagine: If the Ming Dynasty was internally stable, it would be impossible for Hou Jin to enter the customs!

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