罗乙兴明代粤郭的生产运输和海外贸易

明朝贸易顺差原因_明朝贸易经济特点_明朝贸易与经济/

佛山祖庙全景。 它建于1372年。

文/罗艺兴

铁锅是农业文明的产物,是实现定火饮食的重要工具。 在古代,铁锅作为一种耐用消费品,对于提高生活质量、社会稳定发挥着非凡的作用和意义。 广式锅并非起源于明代,但作为铸铁炊具的代表产品,广式锅最早为世人所知是在明代。 作为郑和下西洋时的重要礼物,粤郭在南海皇室和领导人中奠定了明朝民族品牌的地位。

明代光果的生产、运销

一、“走进光国”与光国生产

明代的“去广”运动是各省商人到广东推销佛山镇生产的粤货和从国外进口的洋货的大规模流通活动。

明代小说《今古奇观》卷四《江兴兄珠衫重相》云:“相传湖广襄阳府东阳县,有一个人,名叫江明德。 ,绰号兴哥。他的父亲江世泽原本跟随岳父罗工到广东做生意,因为失去了妻子,留下了年仅九岁的兴哥。江世泽不能放下了爱情,不愿意离开广东的路,只好带着星哥一起走,一路上只说自己是自己的侄子罗小关,原来罗家是罗家的人。三代人都在广东生活,这些客栈都是卖牙的,罗家的小官们听说了都不高兴……”

据梁家斌先生考证,“罗小观之盛”发生在天顺二年(1458年)。 “当时的广东已经聚集了世界各地的客商。” 嘉靖年间人郑若增也说:“浙江人常常行骗,偷蚕丝、水银、原铜、药材,广州的货物都在广州卖,广州的货物都在广州卖。”回到浙江,这本来叫交通,但名字巧妙地取名为‘去广’。” 可见,15世纪中叶至16世纪中叶,各省商人都把“进广州”作为他们的黄金之路。

广锅是明代广东铁锅的正式名称。 光国来自广东省佛山镇的私营炼铁炉户。 明代,佛山镇隶属广州府南海县管辖,与省城广州同辖。 因此,佛山镇产品销往省外市场时,均贴有“广”字,以区别产地。 如广果、广中、广镇、广缎、广厦、广耀、广口等。狭义上是指广州地区生产的产品,广义上是指广东省生产的产品。

广式锅在广东称为佛山铁锅或铁锅,粤语发音WOK。 佛山铁锅店“是本镇独有的产业,拥有官方专利,生产品质优良,是其他地方无法比拟的”。 明代时期,内官所需的御壶、兵部所需的军壶、工部所需的官壶,都长期在佛山采购。 此外,光果草原还适宜放牧、迁徙。 它可以在马背上驮着,不会因颠簸而损坏,因此深受北方少数民族的喜爱。

佛山铁锅店物产丰富。 据《广东新语》记载:“有二光壶,大者曰汤尾、神七、神六、牛乙、牛九,小者曰牛三、牛四、牛五,有三五口。无耳光果,称为牛魁、青谷等。” 《广东新语》卷十五《火语·帖》。 最大的糖流通罐直径约四尺,深一尺多,可盛汁约700公斤。 最小的广东壶直径一尺七。 明代市场上最畅销的广东壶是二尺广东壶和三尺广东壶。

明朝贸易经济特点_明朝贸易与经济_明朝贸易顺差原因/

《佛山》石榜。 藏于广东省博物馆。

2、大运河与光国北交通

明永乐皇帝定都北京,同时修建大运河,疏浚临清至济宁运河北段的会通河。 从此,杭州至北京全线贯通。 大运河成为南北商人运输大宗商品的首选通道。 永乐二十一年(1423年),山东巡抚陈济说:“淮安、济宁、东昌、临清、德州、直谷皆为商人,今都城北平,百货倍增。” 这就是光国大流通。 提供了历史机遇。

明代,以广国为代表的粤货北行销往国内市场的路线是从佛山出发,沿北江,溯水至南雄岐水,经陆运至大峪岭(梅关)。 这条路自北宋以来就是广州铁路北上交通的繁忙要道。 明万历佛山人霍玉霞说:“富国强兵之道,以盐铁为第一要务。两广铁货,乃京师之都。”七省,每年浙江、知、湖、湘宾客数十万,途经梅岭,皆买铁货北上。

顾炎武还指出,当时南雄梅岭路上,“南渡北来的货物,全是盐铁,沉甸甸的……每天有数千(包)”。 过坎后,铁货到南安,沿赣江而下,经樟树镇至九江,经安庆、芜湖,沿江至南京,再从苏州入运河北上,经过经淮安至临清。

明代,淮安作为南船北马的交通枢纽而繁荣。 淮安河畔是淮盐盐和百货的集散地。 《西游记》的作者吴承恩(1500—1582),自幼生活在淮安河畔。 他亲眼目睹了光国船在淮安湾卸货,继续北上临清备货的盛况。 因此,在《西游记》第七十五回的故事中,留下了孙悟空背着光果锅,钻进妖怪肚子里,打算把妖怪煮成内脏的精彩对白。

临清地处江北运河中段,横跨会通河与渭河交汇处,成为“南北交汇的咽喉”。 明代万历年间,临清潮馆每年征收的船票商税达8.3万多两,位居全国八大纸币之首。 八个海关的商税合计达34万多两,其中临清海关占四分之一。 临清古称清远。 万历年间,松江布被远销。 “自宜怀北上,至齐鲁郊外,仰望京师,至旧边,以清远为枢纽”。 虽然江南布匹是明代南运北运的重要商品,但广东锅也是南运北运的大宗商品。

据徐坦研究,临清市场上有广锅、无锡火锅和鲁锅(西鲁火锅)。 光果来自广东,被运销; 无锡锅是由南船带到中国的; 西路铁锅很可能来自山西六安的鲁国。 临清本地消费以光果火锅和无锡火锅为主; 鲁国大部分转移到其他地方,只在临清纳税。 此外,宣府、大同、辽东互市所用的铁鼎等铁器,不少是从临清采购或经临清转运的。

《明穆宗实录》卷五十四,成书于隆庆五年二月; 卷五十五成书于隆庆五年三月。 明代,临清国师街成为“最繁华”的地区。 明代临清也是佛山壶商的中心市场。 万历年间,佛山大铁业李氏第八代祖李白曾代家人将广东壶贩运至临清。 “在同业公(铁业富商李庄)的指使下,往返于千里之外的张江和清远之间,如出一辙。”

李庄也亲自出征,“出入漳江,一时名士贤乐同游,全国无一人认识”。 李代文:《李氏族谱》卷五《师德纪祖考同业公传》。 广东果果在临清​​有三种销售方式:一是漂洋过海到辽东开原,改道到女真林区,行程长达三千里;二是从辽东开原运往女真林区。 另一路继续沿通河、通州北上,进京备货销售。 同时分发到甘凉、西番等地,距离三千里; 一路向北,被卖到了大同镇、宣府镇、蓟州镇。 嘉靖年间,宣府镇向南开设“广国酒家”等地。 以产地命名的商店。 隆庆五年(1571年),王充古在奏疏中提到:“当我发现宣达沿线山远,铁锅稀缺时,多用广东锅。” 可见广东壶深受北方偏远城镇人们的喜爱。

明朝贸易顺差原因_明朝贸易与经济_明朝贸易经济特点/

“诏封忠义乡”石额。 藏于佛山市博物馆。

3、光果价格

凭借过硬的产品品质和多样化的产品系列,光锅的市场价格明显高于当时北方市场营销的其他铁锅品牌。 正统十四年(1449年),北京市场上的光国壶每只值两帛,而其他壶只值一帛。 隆庆五年(1571年),王充古说“鲁壶久破,仅得二斤,比广壶便宜三倍”。 清朝继承明朝制度,高度推崇光国。 《清代会典》明确记载了光锅等铁锅的价格,记录在此供参考:

明朝贸易经济特点_明朝贸易顺差原因_明朝贸易与经济/

《清代会典》记载的各种铁锅价格表

同等口径,光锅的价格是其他铁锅的2-3倍。 正如明末清初人屈大均所言:“故佛山之锅,皆贵而坚”。 《广东新语》卷十五《火语·铁》。

4、广东锅的价值

1、光国号是明朝皇家器皿。

明代,内部官员负责收购光果,并允许其供宫廷及各官方食堂使用。 旧规定规定,凡是“适合使用的生铁炉灶、沙锅、锅碗瓢盆等”,应当“经监狱(内官监狱)批准,为官员和食堂服务。不足,通报部(工部),恢复广东铸造,先后革职,转狱。隆庆五年内,广东送狱期,本部暂令购买然后赠送。这不是以前的做法。”

2、光锅是明代山墓中使用的祭器。

北京宛平县是明代皇陵所在地。 明朝历代皇帝“一年五次”都来此祭陵祭祀。 据万历年间顺天府宛平县令沈邦所著的《万书杂记》记载:“山陵、金山等地建祭膳,为使者提供汤饭,除工部,建了宴会厅。” 宛平县他还负责准备各种炊具、桌椅,有的“是县里采购的”,有的是“县里租来的”,“每年都用柴火、木炭来烹煮各陵墓内的动物”。 ,并且牺牲各不相同。” 隆庆六年,穆宗敬大举进贡。 他在宛平县负责租赁的物品中,有“二尺宽锅四只,三钱六分银子”和“二尺六寸铁锅四只,蒸笼、炉子齐全”。三分钱和六分钱”。

3、光锅是明朝军队的军用锅

明军“编成五人、五人、二十五人为一队,设队长领之”。 “每队配备铜锅或铁锅,无论演练、部署、出行、住宿、饮食,士兵不得离开队伍,队伍不得离开岗哨,哨兵不得离开。”离开营地。” 由陆军部采购。

由上可见,明代佛山民间灶户生产的广果,通过多重水路的配送,完成了大宗商品在南北数千里空间内的远距离销售和市场占有。系统和多节点市场。 光国以其最优的性能、品质和最高的价格,在明代高端铁锅消费群体中取得了精神上的统治地位。 这奠定了光国作为明代耐用消费品第一铁锅品牌的地位,为其成为明代国宝奠定了坚实的基础。

明代广东郭氏的海外贸易

明朝永乐年间,郑和宝船将粤锅带到了南海和中亚各国,奠定了粤锅在皇室和领导人心目中作为明朝民族品牌的地位。 明初,缺乏铁铸件的南海各国领导人对中国铁器的追求,强化了明朝朝贡制度的核心凝聚作用。 明代每一个重大历史节点都有粤壶的身影。 广东壶完成了从国礼到民间器物的转变过程,为丰富和推动南海各国物质文明进程发挥了作用。

1、洪武朝赏赐各国朝贡使者铁鼎

明朝定鼎建立后,洪武帝立即派出四位使者颁布诏书,贡品全部完成,这是空前的。 当时,东亚国家中只有中国和朝鲜拥有成熟的铸铁技术,因此海外国家非常喜爱中国铁器。 郑若增《丑海图编》记载,在日本,“铁锅虽不大,大者极少,每锅价银一两”。 《丑豪图编》卷二《日本豪铁锅》,第199页。琉球“不重华而不实之国,唯瓷铁鼎,自然赏用之物甚多”。 明朝廷深知各国都重视铁,所以送给海外皇室的礼品多用铁鼎(铁锅)。 这就是“赏赐多用,自然”。

据《明史》记载,洪武七年(1374年)冬,琉球国中山王乍都之弟太极进贡。 洪武帝“命刑部侍郎李浩甫赐文帛、陶器、铁器,又命陶器七万件,铁器千件”。 ,只是国家的市场马”。 明朝谈迁《国言》中也有这样的记载:洪武七年(1374年)十二月,“刑部尚书李浩,遣琉球五十件七文,五十件”。七沙罗件,陶器六万九千五百件,铁鼎,马九百九十匹。”

需要指出的是,谭迁对“铁鼎九百九十个”的记载比张廷玉对“铁器千件”的记载更为准确。 此外,明朝弘治年间制定的《赠繁邑通则》中,收录了17种礼品的折价,其中就包括“铁锅宽三尺,一百五十贯”的折价。每个”。 还有价格规定。

明初,琉球贡道从广东延伸至京师。 《明世宗实录》卷一百一十八,嘉靖九年十月辛酉记:事中告王熙文:广东控制蛮夷诸国,暹罗、占婆、琉球、爪哇,巴厘岛也做出了贡献。 根据《东莞道经》,我的祖先就规定来时有固定的时间,有一定数量的船,符箓比较表明都是一样的。 随货送去,官府出钱购买。 《祖训》里有记载,可以考证。

《明会典》规定:“至占城、琉球、爪哇、暹罗,设宴两次;使者回粤时,布政司管茶食一次”。 由此看来,明朝使节李浩出使琉球时所带的铁鼎极有可能是产自位于贡道上的广东佛山。

2、郑和下西洋时购买广东郭

永乐三年(1405年)6月15日,永乐皇帝下旨“遣郑和等人以圣旨出使西洋诸国”,拉开了人类历史上大规模的民族对话和贸易盛会。文明。 此后的28年间,从永乐三年到宣德八年(1405-1433年),郑和率领庞大的武装宝船船队七次下西洋,纵横亚非海域,进行与30多个国家和地区开展大规模双向贸易。 商品交易。

明朝贸易顺差原因_明朝贸易与经济_明朝贸易经济特点/

1486年铸造的大铜钟,重1700公斤。存祖寺博物馆。

在郑和宝船所载的数千万件贵重物品中,来自广东佛山镇的光果,充当了国礼的角色。 与郑和宝船一起,大部分被赠送给海外皇室和中亚贵族。 其中一部分通过易货贸易进入当地市场,流入百姓家中。

郑和是内关监的太监,也就是内关监的总管。 明代太监组织设十二监、四司、八局,称为“二十四衙门”。 持印者为太监,爵位为四品,其余为小太监、太监等。明初洪武、永乐年间,内关监为内关衙门第一任太监。而宦官郑和则是明初内关衙门的掌门人,地位显赫。

内务府的职责有三:一是朝廷礼仪事务,负责与西海的对外交往;二是掌管朝政事务。 二是内政提拔选拔事宜,负责西航决策和选拔人员。 而最重要的就是第三个,负责宫殿的建造和采购一切用具。

据《明史·知官志》记载,内官监狱“载有木、石、瓦、土、建材、东行、西行、油漆、婚事、火药十种作品,以及米、粮等。盐仓、建筑仓库、御坛。库房是指国家建造的宫殿、陵墓、铜锡陶器、器皿、冰铸件等。” 可见,内关剑掌管宫廷器物的作用非常明确,这说明内关剑在宫廷器物的使用上具有极大的权威。 因此,内务局负责在西行之前采购海外礼品和贸易货物。

航行到西洋的最大宝船可装载5000件物资。 《明代太监洪恭寿铭记》记载,洪堡在“永乐年间”任副使,统帅军士,乘坐一艘巨船,载有大福等物资5000余件。 他向西方各国颁布圣旨,劝告远方的人们。”主船载有物资1500-2000件,共208艘,首次下西洋。他七次下西洋,每次都需要购买一到两百艘船的舰队,需要购买大量精美华丽的物品才能获得奖励,其中就包括铁锅。

明宣德皇帝在郑和第七次下西洋的圣旨中提到,“按额发放”的物品包括:“一定数量的钱粮,以及彩钱等礼品”向范王首领,阿丹等六国进贡。” 我用价钱买了丝线等物品,又买了瓷器、铁锅、西洋前任官员的礼品,以及内部的兵器、纸装、油烛、柴火、酒等。官员和使节随船使用。 、油、蜡烛等。”

明代,“内官监”负责“普通生铁锅、炉灶、锅碗瓢盆等”的供给。 到内部政府。 所有诸如“铸铁锅和炉子”之类的物品都“经监狱和餐厅的官员批准使用”。 明代的旧惯例:每当皇宫需要铁锅时,内官都会监督将铁锅送交工部,工部再到广东铸造提供。 广东供应的产品先后运往工部,再转内务局。 隆庆五年(1571年)后,监所所需的广东铁锅等物品无法及时运达。 朝廷临时下令工部购买,移交皇狱使用。 可见,工部号召收购光国只是临时措施,内部官员恢复广东铸件供应供应才是常态。

由于否认宣德朝郑和下西洋的功绩,明朝未能保存郑和下西洋的丰富档案记录。 但通过串联各种资料,郑和下西洋、购买广东锅的史实依然清晰可见。

广东位于南海之滨,江海相连。 明朝建立了户籍制度,百姓乐业。 特别是商品手工业迅速发展,广州商品繁荣。 明初还限制南海各国的贡道必须从广东进出。 史载:“永乐改元,遣使颁旨,诸功毕,奇货珍宝,空前绝后。命内臣督镇船,置府于水边。”在广州城南,府邸建在县城西的仙女湖上。”

据《国言》记载,永乐元年(1403年)八月丁巳,浙、闽、粤航运部成立,命大臣齐熙督办广东航运。 《国言》卷十三,永乐元年八月丁巳。 更重要的是,据李庆新考证,郑和下西洋两次从广东起航,即第二次和第六次直接从广东起航。

明万历所著的《广东通志》记载:永乐五年(1407年)九月,“命宦官郑和出使西域诸国,自广东出发,至占婆国”。 此次使团从广东起航,途经占婆、爪哇、暹罗、苏门答腊、南五里、库里、高知、锡兰等国。由于这里是进贡要道,且内有官员驻扎于此,郑和的宝船船队应该将广东视为大量精选产品的供应基地之一。

民国时期的《佛山忠义乡志》是清末进士冼宝谦编撰的。 与其他佛山志相比,他的书对佛山故里的描述更多,研究更详细。 冼宝谦曾论及佛山开镇:“明朝永乐年间,遣三太监下西洋,岛上蛮族多受封爵,船只开始聚集,各种货物、珍宝南北交通,以佛山为枢纽,生意兴盛。范蠡说,天下陶巨改姓朱,三枝千金,号陶朱公,与当年的地方差不多。佛。” 显然,冼宝谦将佛山繁荣的原因与郑和下西洋直接联系起来。

笔者认为,从上述内部官员和监察员的职能来看,郑和下西洋期间的采购包括广东佛山生产的铁锅。 原因有三:第一,郑和出洋前,必须派马船来回采购。 采购的时间长达一年,然后才被运送到宝船所在地。 采购地点主要集中在江南、珠三角等南方手工业发达地区。 其次,广州有一位名叫齐熙的内部官员负责,可以提供当地的商业信息并方便转运。

第三,佛山炼铁业的兴起与郑和七下西洋恰逢。 佛山永乐年间,出现了享誉全国的大锅商冼浩通,有“佛山生意以锅业为主”的记载。 明代,佛山炒铸七业以壶为首,产量巨大。 煎铸七业皆有缴费义务:“各别各行其职,但铸锅商许诺做铁锅,铸铁炉许诺做铁炉,煎锻商许诺做铁炉, -铁炉户承诺制造武器用的熟铁,铁艺制造商承诺制造武器。拉铁丝的家庭可以为皇室使用铁丝和绞丝炉链,为皇室制作锁铁炉。皇室,可以用炉链、肩环、罐头挂钩、抽炒锅等,卖铁钉买铁钉,自古以来就是大家按货卖卖的规矩,没有任何混乱。”

可见,除了“铁锅”之外,还有“军用铁艺”、“皇家绞丝炉链”、“皇家炉链”、“皇家煎锅炒锅”等皇家铁器。 这里所说的“永治”,是指明朝初期,特别是永乐年间郑和下西洋期间形成的许供制度。

郑和下西洋时给予的赏赐极其精美、奢华。 Regarding such rewards, the “Ming Huidian” stipulates: “When the yamen is built, it must be fine. If there is anything unsatisfactory, the Ministry of Ceremonies will be responsible for the serious treatment.” Therefore, each yamen spared no expense and strived to be exquisite, so as to achieve the standard of “enough to be worthy of imperial use”.

In the Ming Dynasty, Foshan inherited the casting technology from three generations and created the unique “red mold casting method”. The thin castings made by this process have a very fine and uniform metallographic structure, extremely high surface finish, and the yield rate often reaches 100%. Light, thin, tough, and fast to heat up, the iron pots produced in Foshan are unique and of excellent quality. “They are sold among Jiang and Chu, and people can tell them apart.” All of these are in line with Zheng He’s high standards for rewards during his voyages to the West.

After Zheng He’s voyages to the West, overseas royal families went to Guangdong to purchase Cantonese Guo. According to the “Records of the Ming Dynasty”: (In May of the fourth year of Xuande), the Javanese envoy Ariel Mamo and other generals returned to the country and complained to the Ministry of Rites: The boat was damaged by the sea wind when they came, and he begged the Chief Secretary of Guangdong to build a boat. I want to return to Guangdong with the things I gave away. The Ministry of Rites said: Fan ministers pay tribute, and their duties are natural. If the boat breaks down, it should be built at its own expense. How can it go to the imperial court? There are strict rules and regulations that cannot be followed. It said: Don’t listen to Yi Tie, but when people from far away come to court, they should be treated generously, and the tips for building boats are not enough, so they should be followed.

In the early Ming Dynasty, it was strictly forbidden to export hemp iron and scrap iron abroad, and Java had no casting technology. Therefore, “exchanging the stolen goods with iron in Guangdong” should refer to Javanese envoys such as Yali Mamo and others exchanging their special products for Foshan iron pots. Although Emperor Xuande failed to allow Yitie in Guangdong this time, successive Javanese envoys did not give up their request.

In May of the third year of Jingtai (1452), the Javanese King Balawu sent his companion Yalie Maishanggen to lead an envoy to pay tribute. Emperor Jingtai gave a banquet and gave the Javanese king and his concubines colorful coins, silk threads, and clothes. He also gave the envoys and others crowns, hats, flowers, and gold and silver ribbons. However, the envoy Yalie Maishanggen still reported: “The ship we drove when paying tribute was shaken by the wind and was badly damaged. I begged the Third Division of Guangdong to repair it. He also begged for the king’s order, umbrella cover, and python dragon clothes, thinking that The glory of a small country. He also begged for gifts for the local trade in Guangdong, such as oil and hemp nails, iron pots, bowls, porcelain and the like.” Emperor Jingtai “all obeyed”.

In March of the 14th year of Hongzhi (1501), “Li Biaoting, a citizen of Xinfeng County in Jiangxi, together with Li Tingfang, a local, and Zhou Cheng, a Fujianese, went overseas to do various business transactions privately, and arrived in Java. They lured his fellow countrymen to come to Guangdong with goods. Of”. Chi Yisu’s father, Badu Wuxin, was the “king of the country”, and Li Banting ordered him to deceive his father into hiding one piece of old paper “Zhao Zi No. 3 Kanhe Dibo”. The boat passed by Wuzhou Ocean and was caught in the wind. It drifted to Dianbai County and pretended to be a tribute envoy from the Kingdom of Java. The local government transferred this group of 109 Han people to Guangzhou. After inspection by the Ministry of Rites, it was found to be a false one, and he was severely punished by the Ming Dynasty. “The stolen goods were collected by the Chief Secretary of Guangdong for storage; and the Chief Secretary of Guangdong was ordered to transfer the document to the King of Java for serious punishment of Badu Uxin and his son for pretending to be tribute envoys.” ”。

From the above-mentioned Javanese envoys and leaders who repeatedly requested the emperor to bring the colorful coins and silk threads generously gifted by the Ming Dynasty to Guangdong in exchange for nails, iron pots and other items, it can be seen that Java has a special liking for Guangdong iron pots. According to various historical records collected in “Compilation of Materials on Zheng He’s Voyage to the West”, the South China Sea countries that exchanged pots, cauldrons and other ironware with China at that time included Bo Ni, Sulu, Jili Diman, Sha Yao, Na Bie, Mayi, Sandao, Banggeci, Tianfang and other countries. Because of Zheng He’s gifts and promotion during his voyages to the West, Guangguo enjoys a high reputation among the royal families of the South China Sea.

明朝贸易经济特点_明朝贸易与经济_明朝贸易顺差原因/

Thousand monk pot. Foshan Wansheng Furnace was cast in 1746. Cun Qingyun Temple.

3. Macao Port and Guangguo Trade

From the eighth year of Jiajing reign (1529) to the opening of the sea by Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1685), it was a prosperous era for Macao’s port trade. Folangji people, Chinese maritime merchants (Zheng Zhilong, etc.), and Guangzhou merchants (Shen Shangda, etc.) took turns participating in the trade between Macao and the East and West, and Foshan iron pots always had a place among the traded goods.

In October of the eighth year of the Jiajing reign (1529), Lin Fushang, the Vice-President of Guangdong and Guangdong Province, made some remarks about the opening of Macau to trade, so he “went to the Ministry of War to discuss: Annan and Manlajia have been under the jurisdiction of the past, so they can connect the city.” This is recorded in “Ancestor’s Instructions” “Huidian”. Fo Langji Zhengde first entered, but the Yasan class punished them illegally, so how could they be exterminated? Moreover, Guangdong has a municipal shipping department, but Zhangzhou does not have one. Guangdong should not block it. If it is blocked, Zhangzhou should ban it, but it cannot. Please order Guangdong’s ban on shipping, and those who are allowed to connect to the city will not be banned. Zhangzhou will drive them away, and they will not be allowed to stop shipping. Follow it.”

“Guoyan” also records: “On the seventh day of the tenth month of the tenth month of the lunar month, the Ming Dynasty allowed Fanbo to still be used in Guangdong, but the private market in Zhangzhou banned it.” Macao’s trade developed from the beginning, attracting countries from the South China Sea to come to Macao for trade. For example, Man Lajia “trafficks itself to China, and goes directly to Xiangshan Ao, Guangdong, with endless connections.” The Kingdom of Hundred Flowers also “attached trade to Xiangshan, Haojing, and Australia.” Among the traded goods, iron pots were the most profitable. At that time, Luzon massacred Chinese on a large scale to compete for the profits of ironware.

“Records of the Ming Dynasty” records: In the 31st year of Wanli (1603), “The Lusong Kingdom sold Chinese iron weapons because of the lack of them, so they killed more than 20,000 Chinese. The barbarians were concerned about China and raised troops to investigate the crime, and went to Xiangshan’ao to investigate. Fujian The ministers of Guangfu did not dare to say anything, and they heard it hastily. The edict did not cause trouble, it was just a matter of time.” As a free port city for Sino-Western trade, Macau became an important base for stimulating the development of smuggling in Guangdong in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties.

According to the Ming Dynasty’s “Jinglin Continuation Notes” written by Zhou Yuanwei: “Guangzhou Xiangshan is the gateway for sea ships to enter and leave. Every ship that arrives often carries tens of thousands of gold and various overseas treasures, many of which are tens of thousands. Report to this county first The Shenda vassal has its own long rules for the promotion and inspection of ships with the county officials. However, the extra hidden income is not enough, and the number of people who report it to the official and pay taxes is only 23 out of 10.” It is also recorded: “The habit of profiteers in Fujian and Guangzhou is common, and every day One ship was mainly carried by wealthy people, and carried medium-sized heavy goods. The rest used their own capital to sell goods to the market, and made a profit of more than a hundred times.” The so-called “medium-loaded heavy goods” are mostly iron pots.

Zheng Zhilong learned how to do business in Macau in his early years, and later moved to Hirado, Nagasaki, Japan, where he purchased trading ships, traveled between Taiwan, Xiamen and Macau, and started selling Siam, Cochin and Srivijaya.

According to records such as the Dutch East India Company’s “Batavia City Diary”, from the sixth to the eleventh year of Chongzhen (1633-1638), Zheng Zhilong and his fleet transported as many as 200-300 ships to Taiwan every year. The main commodities are raw silk, satin, sugar, iron pots and other products. Among them, there are quite a few Cantonese pots loaded from Macau. In the early years of Chongzhen’s reign, Li Chongwen of the Xixiang Li family, the head of the three iron-smelting families in Foshan (cousin of Li Daiwen, Minister of Household Affairs), initiated the organization of the “Guangshao Guild Hall” in Foshan, specializing in the export and wholesale of Cantonese pot. It was recognized by the Guangdong government It was considered to be a “Woton Relief Temple” and was investigated.

(This article is excerpted from “Imperial Iron Capital: Foshan from 1127 to 1900” written by Luo Yixing, authorized by Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House)

精选中文好书

明朝贸易经济特点_明朝贸易与经济_明朝贸易顺差原因/

“Imperial Iron Capital: Foshan from 1127 to 1900”

Luo Yixing

上海古籍出版社

2021 年 3 月

The rise and prosperity of Foshan Town in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was an important node in the history of Chinese urban civilization. Foshan was born and prospered because of iron. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the government granted Foshan furnace owners a special policy of “official patent”, which enabled the long-term development of Foshan’s private iron casting industry and made it famous all over the world. Five hundred years of red-furnace customs and government procurement have made Foshan one of the four largest towns in the world. It also brought Foshan, an industrial and commercial city, into the imperial system of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, leading the intensive development of manufacturing in the Lingnan region during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Trade prospered. This book focuses on revealing the urban development path of Foshan Town in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, its status as a port city for overseas trade, and the diverse changes in its traditional culture.

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