2021年高中通史版历史复习学习计划-第十二讲-明清经济-含分析

第12讲明清经济 思维导图 历史术语 1. 明代,新航路开通后,玉米、红薯等农作物从美洲传入中国,增加了粮食产量,养活了更多人口。 2、明朝中叶以后,私人手工业超过官营手工业,占据主导地位。 手工业和地域分工不断发展,专业化趋势加剧。 资本主义的萌芽出现在江南的丝织业,但从未进入工厂手工业时代。 3、“重农抑商”作为我国古代的一项经济政策,对​​于保障农业生产的发展、抑制富商势力、维护社会相对稳定起到了积极的作用。 但封建社会晚期也抑制了工商业的正常发展,阻碍了资本主义的成长。 4、“闭关锁国”政策虽然一度发挥了一定的国防自卫作用,但阻碍了中外经济文化交流,使中国长期与世界隔绝,逐渐落后于世界潮流。 一、封建经济的发展和繁荣 1、农业 (1)耕作技术:生产技术水平显着提高,双季稻大规模推广,玉米、甜甜等高产作物马铃薯已被引进和推广。 (2)灌溉工具:明清时期出现了风力水车。 (3)农业著作:徐光启的《农业政策全书》反映了当时农业科技水平。 2、手工业 (1)生产规模:明朝中叶以后,私人手工业超过官营手工业,占据主导地位。 (二)成就 ①制瓷业 明代,烧制有阿拉伯文、梵文装饰图案的瓷器。 清代,西餐用具和鱼缸都是按照欧洲人的订单专门制作的。

明清时期瓷器种类繁多,有青花瓷、彩瓷、珐琅瓷等。 ②丝织业:南方丝织业进入鼎盛时期,苏州、杭州、南京成为著名的丝织业中心。 明清时期古代手工业由官营为主转变为私营为主的原因 (1)生产力水平的提高为私营手工业的发展提供了物质技术基础。 (2)农业生产的进步为私营手工业的发展提供了原料。 (3)商品经济的发展为私营手工业的发展提供了市场。 (4)封建人身依附的放松,为私人手工业的发展提供了必要的劳动力。 3. 商业 (一)城市商业繁荣 ①大量农副产品进入市场成为商品。 ②区域间长途贩运贸易快速发展,货币作用增强。 ③区域性商人群体——商人帮派出现,其中实力最强的是徽商、晋商。 (2)商业城镇发展:汉口镇、佛山镇、景德镇、朱仙镇四大商业名镇崛起。 古代商业的发展变化 4.(1)资本主义产生的条件:社会生产力和商品经济的发展。 (2)出现时间:明朝中后期。 ②地点:江南。 ③工业:丝织业。 ④标志:手工作坊和雇佣劳动关系的出现。 ⑤性质:是一种新型的资本主义生产关系。 (三)特点 ①区域性和不平衡性突出。 ②发展缓慢。 (四)缓慢原因 ①政府采取加强管控、掠夺等措施进行镇压。 ②对强势经济传统的压制。 ③根本原因:落后的封建制度的阻碍。

二、封建经济的停滞一、“重农抑商”政策的原因(一):社会存在商农争夺劳动力等问题,影响农业生产,甚至危害政治统治。 (二)宗旨:保护农业生产和小农经济,保证税收和地租的征收,巩固封建统治。 (3)绩效:明清时期,政府实行垄断制度,对私营企业征收附加商业税。 (四)评价①正面:保护农业生产和小农经济; 促进了农业经济的发展; 巩固了新兴地主阶级的势力。 ②消极:它强化了自然经济,阻碍了封建社会后期工商业和资本主义的发展,从根本上造成了中国的落后。 2、“海禁”和“隐居”的原因影响了明朝的“海禁”。 明太祖担心流亡海上的敌对势力与倭寇勾结,危害统治人民。 未经授权,他们不得出海与外国进行贸易。 对外贸易只能在官方支持下进行(1)。 海外市场的发展抑制了资本的原始积累,阻碍了资本主义的发展。 (二)使中国与世界隔绝,逐渐落后于世界潮流。 清朝“闭关锁国”应对东南沿海的反清斗争; 它认为天朝的大国不需要在与外国进行贸易时实行严格的海禁,禁止官员和公民私下出海; 沿海居民向内迁移,未经许可不准出海。 “海禁”、“隔离”与“重农抑商”政策之间的关系。 古代的朝贡贸易导致了中国的落后。 中国古代的对外贸易主要是政府与外国之间进行的朝贡贸易。 目的不是为了获得最大的经济利益,而是为了加强与海外国家的友好交往。

这种朝贡贸易往往遵循“报多报少”的原则,采取“双倍报还”的方式,给政府在贸易方面增加了沉重的财政负担,影响了中外贸易的可持续发展。 ►素养提升———————————素养热词农业经济的繁荣、工商业的发展、城镇的兴起、资本主义的出现、“重农、重农”政策抑商》的延续,“海禁”“隔离”政策素养解读时空概念,梳理明清时期经济发展的表现,全面链接社会经济的表现和特征明清以前的发展,全面了解中国古代农业经济的演变和演变。 历史解释:明清时期,社会经济不断繁荣,特别是工商业城镇经济的兴起,促进了手工业和商业的繁荣,促进了资本主义的产生和缓慢发展; “重农抑商”政策和“海禁”、“闭关锁国”政策的实施,阻碍了中外经济交往的发展,延缓了中国向现代社会的转变。 历史证据利用历史资料和考古遗存来解释和证明明清社会经济的特征和影响; 从经济角度认识明清社会经济未能取得实质性突破的原因。 历史唯物主义运用生产力和生产关系、经济基础和上层建筑关系的理论来认识明清社会经济和社会转型的关系,认识近代中国社会落后的经济根源。 主题一农业经济高度发达(一)唯物史观——明清时期农业的发展【史料】从农业技术、粮食产量等方面看,明清时期农业的发展与前几代相比相对有限,但作物品种的增加和各种经营方式的推广是一个比较突出的成就。

明代中期以来,玉米、甘薯(红薯)、马铃薯(马铃薯)等高产作物从海外传入中国。 它们不仅单位英亩产量高,而且适应性强。 它们不与粮食争夺土地,可以在旱地、山区等地种植,因此得到了广泛传播,在一定程度上缓解了人口增长对土地造成的压力。 烟草、花生等也大致在同一时间传入。 明清时期,棉、麻、桑、茶叶、甘蔗、蔬菜、果树等种植日益普遍,产品大量进入市场。 …中国南方人习惯吃大米,而北方人主要吃小米和小麦。 对新食物有一个适应的过程,甚至可以说是一个被迫的过程。 ——摘自《中国古代简史》和《中华文明史》 【研究】以史料为依据,总结明清时期农作物种植的特点。 【提示】农作物品种增加; 推广多样化的管理方法; 引进国外高产作物; 广泛种植经济作物; 南方水稻、北方小米的种植模式。 历史解说★明清农业发展的原因及影响 (一)原因:人地矛盾突出; 政府鼓励农业发展,如开垦、棉花种植等; 新航线的开通加强了中外交流; 中国人口的大量增长; 市场扩大,农产品商品化程度提高。 (2)影响:促进粮食增产,缓解人口增长压力; 优化人们的膳食结构; 促进人口迁移和流动; 促进农业生产商品化; 专业农业领域的出现,促进当地市场的扩大; 经济作物种植区出现货币地租。 (二)历史证据——明清时期商业和城市的发展【史料】【解读】写实风格绘画《南都繁晖图》为我们提供了明代南京丰富的历史资料。

最大亮点有二:(一)商业贸易发展。 画卷上所绘的“西北良口皮具”、“李集记川广杂货”等匾额,表明南京是一座商业大都市,百货商店云集全国各地,商贾云集,百姓云集。世界。 “东西方货全来”的口号,隐约透露出明代对外贸易的发达程度。 (二)文艺活动丰富。 画卷中人物最集中的地方是戏台前,而戏台则架在街道中央。 男观众站在街上,女观众则坐在两个布满幕布的女舞台上看戏。 街道两旁的商店和餐馆也挤满了观众。 踩高跷、武术表演等民俗文化活动也出现在画卷上,也吸引了大批观众。 画卷上的人物衣着华贵典雅,色彩鲜艳明亮,隐隐约约地暗示着明代中后期都市生活的奢靡和对明初规定的各种等级制度的侵犯。 历史解说★明清时期商品经济发展的特点 (一)城市不断繁荣,商业城镇兴起。 涌现了数十个较大的商业城市,一大批以经济功能为主的中小工商业城镇蓬勃发展,特别是在江南地区。 (二)农产品商品化和手工业商品生产的发展和区域经济的发展。 经济作物广泛种植,农产品及其副产品也成为商品化的组成部分。 (三)商品流通活跃,经济联系加强,全国市场网络进一步形成和一体化。 大量农产品、手工艺品投放市场,国内市场空前扩大,地区间商品交流空前繁荣,联系加强。

(四)仍然坚持重农抑商、闭关锁国的政策。 重农抑商、闭关锁国的政策虽然不能完全遏制私营商品经济的发展,但确实阻碍了新的经济因素的增长,导致中国远远落后于世界工业文明的潮流。 函授培训 1 清代乾隆年间,苏州“织于城东,户户习织,专业者万户之多”。 估计有 12,000 台织布机。 由此可见,当时苏州的民间丝织业是()A. 超越官营手工业 B.催生新的生产关系 C.明显的专业化特征 D.促进海外贸易的繁荣 分析:C 中选取的材料仅涉及苏州民间丝织业的发展,并未提及国有手工业的发展,故A项错误; 材料“专其业万万”,说明苏州丝绸纺织业已实现专业化生产,故C项正确; B、D项未在材料中体现,故不包括在内。 ◆主题二中国古代经济政策与资本主义萌芽(一)历史证据——中国古代经济政策【史料】【解读】漫画阐释了“重农抑商”政策的根源和目的, “闭关锁国”既是保护小农经济,巩固封建统治,维护国家统一。 历史解说★ 比较“重农抑商”与“海禁”政策。 镇压商人势力,维护封建统治基础,发展地主经济,抵御外来殖民势力,维护封建制度。 相同点抑制了商品经济的发展。 不同点严格控制国内市场和商业活动,禁止中国人进行海外贸易,严格限制外商对中国贸易的影响。 这种相似性阻碍了商品经济的发展和资本主义的萌芽。 生长差异在早期有利于古代农业的发展,但后来却阻碍了生产力的发展。 它们具有一定的自卫作用,但长期将中国与世界隔绝,限制了中国与西方的互动。 经济文化交流使中国逐渐落后于世界潮流(二)唯物史观——明清时期资本主义萌芽的缓慢发展【史料一】(据乾隆时人传)富商们利用自己的资本购买了更多的土地。 或数十公顷,或数百公顷。

——《中国近代农业史料(第一辑)》李文治主编【史料2】清政府对工商业实行重税政策,全国各地税收、关税牌无数。 ” 商人有时“从东市场出售货物,纳税后,将货物送到西市场,然后再征税。”再加上官员的勒索和欺诈,“商人已经停止前进。”这对商品流通造成了极大的障碍。。清政府对违反价值规律的手工艺品实行限价收购,并…用超经济强制手段直接掠夺民间手工艺品,窒息了这些手工艺品的生命力商人宁愿讨地,把资金挪到土地上,也不愿投资实业。——摘自白守彝《中国通史》【探究】根据以上历史数据,总结工业发展缓慢的原因【提示】自给自足的封建经济仍占主导地位,地主、商人大量购买房屋和土地,影响了手工业的扩张和再生产; 清政府实行的重农抑商政策,阻碍了商品经济的发展和手工业的扩张和再生产,自然环境恶化。 经济,阻碍了资本主义萌芽的生长。 历史解释★资本主义发展的不利因素:市场因素:农民贫困,购买力低; “关门”政策阻碍海外市场拓展; 自然经济的封闭性和顽固性导致国内市场狭窄; 金融因素:“重农抑商”政策导致地主、商人用资金购买房屋、土地,严重影响了手工业的扩张和再生产。 劳动力因素:国家实行“重农抑商”政策。 农民被束缚在土地上,缺乏自由劳动力。 政策因素:封建政府推行“重农抑商”。 《政策》对商品征收重税,设立关卡,严格限制手工业生产规模; 对外实行“海禁”、“闭关锁国”政策。 组织因素:封建行会垄断了本地区和本行业的业务,排除了外部竞争,也限制了自己的业务。 行业内的竞争不利于新兴资本主义的发展。 概念因素。 传统文化以纲常明教为中心,重义轻利、重本底、重儒轻商。 父权观念也阻碍了新兴资本主义的发展。 科技传统文化科技趋于停滞,缺乏科技创新动力。 根本原因在于腐朽的专制制度严重阻碍了萌芽中的资本主义的发展。 函授培训2(2019年河南天一学院联考高三第一学期结束)。 1672年,新任福建巡抚范承谟发现必须迁居海上。 十几年后,大批移民仍然“无业可居,无生计可寻”,请求法院适当放宽对渔业等事项的限制,以便他们可以用税收“要么养活自己,要么养活自己”。士兵的俸禄,或者借给移民。”

由此可见,范承默()A。 主张废除闭关锁国政策 B. 认识到禁海政策的弊端 C. 意在增加政府收入 D. 超出了当代官员的意识形态分析:选择 B. 该官员认识到闭关锁国造成了该官员主张适当放宽隔离政策,与取消隔离政策不同,不包括A项; 放松逮捕。 鱼的目的是“收税、养兵、借钱给迁民”。 并不是为了增加政府的财政收入。 其根本目的是维护封建统治,C项除外; 该材料并没有将范承谟与同时期的其他官员区分开来。 比较并排除项目 D。A 组1。 (2019国卷Ⅰ)明代中后期,大运河流经的东昌府是山东最重要的产棉区。 生产的棉花大部分被江淮商人采收,沿运河运往江南,然后转售为棉布。 造成这种现象的主要因素是()A。 交通方式的改变 B. 土地制度的调整 C.货币制度的变化 D.区域经济差异分析:选取材料 D:“大运河流经的东昌府,是山东最重要的产棉区,所产的棉花大部分是被江淮商人采收,沿运河运往江南,然后转售为棉布。” 这说明山东是江南的原料产地和棉布市场。 江南是棉布产区,棉织业发达。 这反映了地区经济的差异,故选择D选项。 大运河是他们共同的交通方式,交通方式没有任何变化和区别。 排除A项; 资料涉及商业、手工业,与土地制度调整无关,且明代仍以地主土地所有制为主,排除B项; 各国货币体系的变化不会带来国内地区差异,排除C项。

2.(2019国卷二)研究表明,明代大商人的资本一般为数十万两白银,很多时候达到了数百万两。 到清朝中叶,大商人的资本普遍超过百万两,甚至高达千万两。 由此可见,清朝中期()A. 商人的地位发生了根本性的变化 B.重农抑商的政策明显放松 C.商业活动规模进一步扩大 D.白银开始成为流通货币 分析:从材料中选择 C“明代大商人的资本一般在几十万两白银,多的在百万两以上,到了清朝中叶,大商人的资本一般在百万两以上,甚至有多达相当于一千万两。” 可见,明清时期商业规模的扩大促进了资本的集中,故选择C选项。 受重农抑商政策影响,古代商人地位低下,“根本变革”的表述过于绝对。 排除A项; 封建社会统治者一直坚持重农抑商的政策,“明显宽松”这个表述过于绝对,排除B项; 明朝后期,由于商品经济的发展,白银成为普遍流通的货币,排除D项。 3. (2019国卷三)乾隆年间,江南地主“居于市或外州县,田山皆分佃”。 苏州甚至出现“原住民拥有的土地不到100亩,其余都是佃农,一半土地属于县里富户”的情况。 由此可见,当时的江南()A。 土地所有权变动极其频繁 B. 农业生产利润微乎其微 C. 个体农业是主要生产形式 D. 农业商品化生产的通俗分析:从选择的材料来看 C、“一亩三分地、田地都分给佃户” ”和“安徽土著农民的土地不到100亩,其余都是佃农。 可见,个体佃农是农业生产的主要形式。 ,故选择C选项; 材料“居住在城市或在另一个州的不同县,有英亩的土地和山脉耕种给佃户”表明租赁关系比较普遍,并且不涉及土地所有权的变化,因此排除A项; “土著定居者的田地不足100英亩,其余都是佃农。

“部分耕地属于县内富户”不涉及农业生产利润问题,佃农盛行客观说明地主有利可图或非常有利可图,不包括B项; 该材料强调佃农关系的发展,没有解释农产品的走势,无法解释商品化程度,因此排除D项。 4.(2018全国卷一)下图中的动物是郑和下西洋时外国使节在船上向明政府赠送的珍稀动物。 。 明朝君臣认为这就是中国传说中的“麒麟”,明成祖也曾向外国使节赠送厚礼。 这说明当时() A.对外交往促进了国画新类型的出现 B.朝廷利用中华文化进贡贸易贡品的解读 C.海禁政策的解除促进了对外文化交流D.外国物品的传入促进了传统观念的更新分析:选项B 外国使节向明朝政府贡献了珍稀动物。 明朝皇帝和大臣们认为,这就是中国传说中的麒麟,实际上是朝廷利用中国文化对朝贡贸易贡品的解读,所以答案为B.5项。(2017国家卷一) -明代,宫廷对餐具的使用有一套严格的规定,例如官员不得使用玉器。 到了明代后期,连低级官员乃至普通家庭都开始使用玉器。 这种变化反映了() A.君主专制统治的逐步加强 B.经济发展对等级秩序的冲击 C.公民的崛起破坏了传统伦理 D.低级官员容易奢侈浪费。 分析:材质选择B反映了明代玉器使用从上流社会到普通家庭的转变。 这是商品经济发展的结果,故B项正确; 材料中的现象与君主制的强化没有直接对应关系,所以A项是错误的; C和D项与材料的用途不一致,因此被排除。

6.(2016国卷三)有人描述了明末江南农村的变迁。 他说,一百多年前,雇工“出入戴星,顺服风俗,尊敬主人”。 甜品、冬点、早粥。”这一变化体现了()A.城镇经济和手工业的发展B.政府积极推行土地政策C.社会矛盾日益尖锐D.强化个人依赖关系的分析农业方面:选项A表示明朝中后期江南农村的雇工,即佃农,由勤劳、顺从变为懒惰、傲慢,发生了变化,佃农对地主的依赖有所松动这是因为明代中后期江南地区城镇经济和手工业的发展,吸纳了周边农村大量就业人口,导致农业生产人口大幅下降and a “labor shortage” in the countryside. As a result, the status of rural employees increased. , so item A is correct. 7. (2015 National Volume I) The changes presented in the table reflect () Table of Number of Number One Scholars in the Imperial Examinations in Henan and Jiangsu Tang, Song, Ming and Qing Dynasties Henan 151621 Jiangsu 781749A. The influence of Neo-Confucianism continues to expand B. Economic development promotes cultural prosperity C. The economy in the Central Plains region declined sharply D. Analysis of the obvious trend of the southward shift of the political center of gravity: The influence of Neo-Confucianism continues to expand, which cannot explain the decrease in the number of top scorers in the imperial examinations in Henan, so item A is wrong; the increase in the number of top scorers in the imperial examinations in the south represented by Jiangsu shows that with the Tang Dynasty Since then, the economic center of gravity has moved south. The economic development of the south has promoted cultural prosperity, so item B is correct. The economic development speed of the Central Plains lags behind that of the south, but it has not declined sharply, so item C is wrong. From the Tang and Song Dynasties to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the political center of gravity gradually moved northward. Shift, so item D is wrong.

8. (2015 National Volume II) Zhu Di, the founder of the Ming Dynasty, believed that Beijing’s “mountains and rivers are so beautiful that they can control the barbarians and dominate the world”, so he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing. This move objectively ()A. Promoted the process of national political unification B. Promoted the prosperity of cross-regional trade C. Suppressed the formation of regional business gangs D. Changed the economic and cultural pattern between the north and the south Analysis: Choice B Before Ming Chengzu moved the capital, the Ming Dynasty had completed the unification of the country, so item A was wrong; Ming Chengzu moved the capital to Beijing, which will inevitably drive trade between the north and the south and is conducive to promoting cross-border trade. The development of regional trade, so item B is correct; merchant gangs were formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and their development was not restricted by the capital of Beijing, so item C is wrong; the changes in the economic and cultural pattern between the north and the south were formed as the economic center of gravity moved south , the southward shift of the economic center of gravity was completed in the Southern Song Dynasty, which does not match the time of the material, so item D is wrong. 9. (2019 Hainan Volume) “The Son of Heaven personally plows” originated from “Zhou Rites”. The Ming Dynasty built the Xiannong Altar to the west of the Temple of Heaven in Yongding Gate, Beijing, as a ceremonial place for the emperor to worship the God of Agriculture and participate in farming. From the beginning of the Qing Dynasty to Emperor Shunzhi until the end of the Qing Dynasty, emperors of all generations continued to pay tribute as usual, which reflected the Qing Dynasty ()A. In line with the Ming Dynasty in terms of system B. Inheriting the tradition of farming civilization C. Manchu nobles quickly became farmers D. Deliberately win over the anti-Qing political forces Analysis: Selected material B “The Ming Dynasty… served as a ceremonial place for emperors to worship the God of Agriculture and participate in farming… Until the end of the Qing Dynasty, emperors of all generations worshiped the gods as usual.” This shows that the Qing Dynasty attached great importance to agriculture and inherited the tradition of farming civilization. , so option B is selected; the material mainly explains the inheritance of agricultural sacrificial rituals rather than the inheritance of all systems, and item A is excluded; the material “Emperors of all generations continued to pay tribute as usual” only shows that the rulers of the Qing Dynasty attached great importance to agriculture, but cannot explain that the Manchu nobles became farmers, so it is excluded Item C: The material embodies the emphasis on agriculture rather than winning over anti-Qing political forces, so item D is excluded.

Group B1. (The 2019 Second Joint Entrance Examination for Grades 3 and 6 of Jiangxi Shangrao Key Middle School) During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many landlords moved to cities to live. Fang Bao, a scholar in the Qing Dynasty, once said that landlords “live in cities or in other counties in other states, and all their acres of land and mountains are assigned to tenants.” This phenomenon shows that ()A. The emergence of capitalist farms B. Rapid development of urbanization C. The differences between urban and rural areas are gradually eliminated D. Analysis of the increasing development of the tenancy relationship: According to the selected data, the landlord “lives in the city or in a different county in another state, and all acres of land, mountains and farms are assigned to tenants.” It can be seen that the landlord rents the land to farmers, which changes the rural production relations, indicating that the tenancy relationship The relationship is developing day by day, so option D is selected; according to the material, “acres of land, mountains and farms are all entrusted to tenants”, it can be seen that the feudal land production method, that is, tenancy management, is still used, and item A is excluded; the material emphasizes the tenant relationship in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. , instead of emphasizing the phenomenon of urbanization, exclude item B; the material emphasizes the tenancy relationship in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, rather than emphasizing the difference between urban and rural areas, exclude item C. 2. (2019 Sichuan Nanchong Second Model) Volume 35 of “Agricultural Policy Encyclopedia” records: “Today’s stirrer (cotton seed removal tool), one person can be used as three people. In the sentence form, one person can be used as four people. Two people in the Taicang style can serve as eight people.” Materials indicate that the Ming Dynasty () A. The scale of private handicraft industry has exceeded that of government-run handicraft industry B. Textile raw materials show diversification C. Improvements in tools have greatly improved the efficiency of the cotton textile industry D. Analysis of the slow development of the budding capitalism: According to the selected material, “Today’s truck mixer (cotton seed removal tool), one person can be used as three people. In the Jurong style, one person can be used as four people, and in the Taicang type, two people can be used as eight people.” “It is concluded that the improvement of tools has greatly improved the efficiency of the cotton textile industry, so option C is selected. After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the scale of the private handicraft industry has exceeded that of the government-run handicraft industry, which is consistent with historical facts, but does not fit the meaning of the question. Therefore, option A is excluded; the material emphasizes the importance of tools Improvement, rather than textile raw materials, excludes item B; the essential feature of the budding capitalism is the employment relationship, and there is no information about the employment relationship in the materials, excludes item D.

3. (2019 Shanxi Taiyuan Second Model) According to historical records, in the 23rd year of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1684), there were more than 100 large and small ports distributed from Liaoning in the north to Guangdong in the south. Almost all major countries in Asia, Europe, and America have direct trade relations with China, and China exports 236 types of commodities. This phenomenon shows that at that time () A. The Qing government gradually abolished the “sea ban” policy B. China has relatively close ties with the world economy C. The sprout of capitalism in China is developing rapidly D. China occupies a leading position in foreign trade Analysis: Choice B According to the question, in the 23rd year of Emperor Kangxi’s reign in the Qing Dynasty, China’s foreign trade ports had “more than 100 large and small ports” and “almost all major ports in Asia, Europe and America” All countries had direct trade relations with China.” From this, it can be seen that China had trade relations with almost all parts of the world at that time, so option B is selected. From the knowledge learned, it can be seen that Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty once opened the sea ban instead of gradually abolishing the “sea ban. “Policy, exclude item A; the question stem emphasizes that China’s foreign trade was relatively developed during the Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, and does not mention the budding development of capitalism, exclude item C; the question stem does not compare the import and export situation of China’s trade during the Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty. , it cannot be concluded that China occupies a leading position in foreign trade, and item D is excluded. 4. (Guangdong Shantou Three Models in 2019) In the early Qing Dynasty, the imperial court prohibited additional taxes on merchants, canceled the requirement that looms should not exceed one hundred looms, allowed people to freely mine well salt, and allowed merchants to mine Yunnan copper, lead, and For tin, silver, and iron ore, miners who pay more taxes are also rewarded with top belts.

These measures ()A. Conducive to economic recovery and development B. Abolition of the policy of focusing on agriculture and suppressing business C. Leading to the emergence of capitalism D. Stimulated the emergence of modern industry. Analysis: The material information of choice A shows that in the early Qing Dynasty, a relatively loose commercial policy was implemented, and “people were allowed to freely mine well salt, and merchants were allowed to mine Yunnan copper, lead, tin, silver, and iron ore on their own.” This approach will promote the development of minerals, which is conducive to the recovery and development of the economy, so option A is selected; the policy of focusing on agriculture and suppressing commerce is an important economic policy in China’s feudal society, and its implementation runs through the entire feudal society, so option B is excluded; The germination of capitalism occurred in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, which is inconsistent with the material time, so item C is excluded; modern industry was born during the Westernization Movement, which is inconsistent with the material time, and item D is excluded. 5. (2019 Fujian Nanping Model) Fujian Pucheng Xianxia Ancient Road is known as “the key to the two Zhejiang and the throat to Fujian”. It has been an important business travel route between Zhejiang and Fujian since the Tang Dynasty. It gradually declined during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, and changed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. For prosperity. This stems from ()A. The commodity economy in Fujian, Zhejiang and Jiangxi has developed rapidly B. The emergence of handicraft workshops promoted exchanges between North and South C. The seriousness of Japanese invasion in coastal areas during the Ming and Qing Dynasties D. Analysis of the impact of measures to strictly restrict overseas trade: Selected D is from the material “‘The key to Zhejiang and the throat to Fujian'”, which has been the main business travel route between Zhejiang and Fujian since the Tang Dynasty. It gradually declined during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, and changed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. “For prosperity”, it can be seen that this road was used for trade between Fujian and Zhejiang. During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, overseas trade was developed and trade could be carried out by sea. However, in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, sea bans were implemented and trade could only be carried out by land, so option D was selected; Fujian, Zhejiang and Jiangxi The development of the local commodity economy cannot explain the rise and fall of the Pucheng Xianxia Ancient Road, so item A is excluded; Fujian and Zhejiang belong to the south, and there is no problem of north-south exchanges, so item B is excluded; “Japanese invasion” is the most typical of the Ming Dynasty, which was implemented in the Ming Dynasty One of the reasons for the maritime ban policy is inconsistent with the meaning of the question, so item C is excluded. 页